transformational leadership and change in healthcare
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Transformational leadership and change in healthcare gmr cognizant

Transformational leadership and change in healthcare

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The happier employees are, the less likely they are to leave their job. Because they value their job and find it gratifying. Also, it creates a sense of belonging in nurses and other healthcare staff. In addition, it establishes a strong relationship between healthcare workers and the organisation. Caregivers or healthcare workers who have been at their place of employment for a longer period are more effective in their job.

They are familiar with the work environment and established protocols. That means they need less direction, and they get along with their co-workers. That means reduced turnover is desirable on many accounts. Lastly, less turnover means that leaders can build efficient teams for the long term. Employee empowerment is indispensable for enhancing job satisfaction. Studies have shown that when the nursing staff perceives their leader as transformational, their psychological empowerment is enhanced.

And this leads to having higher well-being as well as increasing their commitment to their hospitals. They have a greater sense of belonging and feel empowered to take decisions as necessary. Empowered employees consider themselves to be more competent. And also more influential in their organisations and at their job. They also perceive themselves to have an impact on their work. In this way, empowerment motivates employees to perform at the highest level. And they exhibit a higher organisational commitment to achieving organisational goals.

Many healthcare organisations prioritise ensuring quality care at the lowest possible cost. And transformational leadership can ensure that, as it has a direct impact on the bottom line. Improved quality of care reduces casualty and patient outcomes. Hence, no more or significantly less costly errors and lawsuits. A lower turnover rate also contributes to saving money on training new employees and recruitment costs.

And these, in turn, reduce the occurrence of adverse events in clinical practice. Moreover, embracing this leadership style can reduce burnout in healthcare workers and nurses. To some extent, it can decrease employee turnover and increase staff well-being and patient quality of care. Therefore, leaders in healthcare settings are highly recommended to adopt this leadership style.

This is essential to prevent accidents and improve overall patient safety. Transformational leaders in healthcare organisations take an interdisciplinary approach to reach desired outcomes. And that requires collaboration with staff, patients, and the community as a whole. Most professionals would agree that the key to transformational leadership in healthcare settings is collaborative goal-setting.

Also, these leaders use various methods to inspire their staff to achieve this shared vision. First, they model the necessary change in relevant areas. Second, they mentor and support others to encourage and facilitate leadership development. Lastly, they hold themselves and others accountable to higher standards. All the while keeping everyone focused on the shared vision. Also, transformational leadership is preventative rather than reactive.

Transformational leaders should focus on the root causes of health needs and inequities. While doing so, they should involve staff, partners, and the community in their vision and actions. This can include collaborating to support community-based prevention programs.

Or community health education programs or other similar initiatives. Transformational leaders ensure that everyone feels represented in and committed to that vision.

They listen, show empathy, and incorporate input from all relevant stakeholders into their vision. All in all, transformational leaders in healthcare settings focus on relationships and collaboration to improve health outcomes. Transformational leadership can be useful in many professional fields. But it is particularly helpful in healthcare and nursing.

No matter which hospital they work in, nurses always work in teams. For instance, they have to work with other nurses, doctors, technicians, or nurse assistants.

This helps to provide their patients with the highest quality of care. Facilitating open communication and effective collaboration is essential. More so for leaders in healthcare settings, due to the nature of work.

Transformational leadership in nursing ensures everyone on the team feels valued. In addition, they must understand the importance of their work. And this contributes to a work culture where all the employees are engaged and empowered. Transformational leadership helps healthcare workers think critically about their roles, and duties.

Also, challenge conventions when befitting, and maintain a positive work environment. Transformational leadership style is pivotal. Healthcare managers and administrators should strive to become transformational leaders. So, transformational leadership in nursing has the potential to have a significant impact on both employees and their patients.

In transformational leadership, effecting change is part of the intended result. Inspiring empathy, supportive relationships, motivation, and belief in a shared vision results in job satisfaction, improved morale, collaboration, increased productivity and further engagement with that shared vision. This fosters ongoing transformative change in overall healthcare. Check out Leadership and Management at QLS Level 7 to learn more about leadership in organisational settings and more.

Why is Transformational Leadership Important in Healthcare? Alisha Rayes. Table of Contents. What is Transformational Leadership? Acquire competence in the management procedures and build strong leadership expertise.

Enrol Now. What is Transformational Leadership in Healthcare? In the health care setting, transformational leadership involves: Envisioning a desired outcome. Examining present reality. Recognising opportunities for improved health care. Improved Patient Care. How does transformational leadership improve patient care? In addition, these two things are necessary to deliver high-quality patient care: Experienced healthcare professionals Effective communication.

Higher Employee Satisfaction. How does transformational leadership impact job satisfaction? Reduced Turnover. Employee Empowerment. Lower Costs. Understand International Healthcare Policy, healthcare provisioning, and contemporary issues in health and social care. Transformational Leadership in Nursing. Leadership therefore can be either transaction-based or transformational. Transactional leadership typifies most leader—follower relationships. Each party to the bargain is conscious of the power and attitudes of the other.

Their purposes are related and advanced only as long as both parties perceive their individual interests to be furthered by the relationship.

The bargainers have no enduring relationship that holds them together; as soon as an item of value is perceived to be at risk, the relationship may break apart Burns, This point is illustrated by labor strikes resulting from a change in the terms of work. The compliance of labor with management is based on an acceptable set of transactions; when the transactions are changed, the relationship may not have much to hold it together. In contrast, transformational leadership occurs when leaders engage with their followers in pursuit of jointly held goals.

Their purposes, which may have started out as separate but related as in the case of transactional leadership , become fused. Transformational leadership is in essence a relationship of mutual stimulation and elevation that raises the level of human conduct as well as the aspirations of both the leader and those led, and thereby has a transforming effect on both Burns, Transformational leadership is achieved by the specific actions of leaders.

First, leaders take the initiative in establishing and making a commitment to relationships with followers. This effort includes the creation of formal, ongoing mechanisms that promote two-way communication and the exchange of information and ideas. On an ongoing basis, leaders play the major role in maintaining and nurturing the relationship with their followers.

Burns notes that, most important, leaders seek to gratify followers' wants, needs, and other motivations as well as their own. Understanding of followers' wants, needs, and motivations can be secured only through ongoing communication and exchange of information and ideas. Leaders change and elevate the motives, values, and goals of followers by addressing their followers' needs and teaching them about their commonly held goals. Doing so may require that leaders modify their own leadership in recognition of followers' preferences; in anticipation of followers' responses; or in pursuit of their common motives, values, and goals.

Although a transforming leader plays the major role in achieving the combined purpose of leader and followers, transformational leadership recognizes that leaders and followers are engaged in a common enterprise and thus are dependent on each other. The premise of transformational leadership is that, regardless of the separate interests people may hold, they are presently or potentially united in the pursuit of higher goals. This point is evidenced by the achievement of significant change through the collective or pooled interests of leaders and followers.

The effectiveness of leaders and leadership is measured by the extent to which intended change is actually accomplished and human needs and expectations are satisfied Burns, Burns offers reassurance that transformational leadership is far more common than might be thought, given the above discussion. He notes that acts of transformational leadership are not restricted to and often are not found in governmental organizations, but are widespread in day-to-day events, such as whenever parents, teachers, politicians, or managers tap into the motivations of children, students, the electorate, or employees in the achievement of a needed change.

In acute care hospitals, individuals in potential transformational leadership roles range from board-level chairmen and directors; to chief executive, operating, nursing, and medical officers; through the hierarchy to unit managers. In nursing homes, such leadership can come from a facility's owners, administrator, director of nursing, and unit managers. Leadership by these senior organization managers and oversight boards is essential to accomplishing the breadth of organizational change needed to achieve higher levels of patient safety—changes in management practices, workforce deployment, work design and flow, and the safety culture of the organization see Chapter 1.

However, if these individuals rely solely on a traditional, transactional approach to leadership, such substantive changes are likely to be difficult to achieve and sustain, as leaders will need to conduct frequent, ongoing, possibly contradictory renegotiations with workers in response to rapidly changing external forces.

In contrast, transformational leadership seeks to engage individuals in the recognition and pursuit of a commonly held goal—in this case, patient safety. For example, individual nurses may desire wide variation in the number of hours they would like to work on a hour or weekly basis.

Attempting to secure their commitment to the organization by accommodating all such requests transactional leadership despite evidence that extended work hours may be detrimental to patient safety would likely be both time-intensive and unsuccessful. Instead, transformational leadership would engage nursing staff in a discussion of patient safety and worker fatigue and seek to develop work hour policies and scheduling that would put patient safety first and respond to individual scheduling needs within that construct.

Such a discussion could have a transforming effect on both staff and management as knowledge was shared. A leadership approach that aims to achieve a collective goal rather than a multitude of individual goals and aims to transform all workers—both managers and staff—in pursuit of the higher collective purpose can be the most efficient and effective means of achieving widespread and fundamental organizational change.

In practicing transformational leadership, leaders need to engage managers and staff in an ongoing relationship based on the commonly held goal of patient safety, and communicate with and teach managers and staff about this higher collective purpose. When teaching managers about the actions they can take to minimize threats to patient safety, HCO leaders should underscore the five management practices enumerated earlier that have been found to be consistently associated with successful implementation of change initiatives and with the achievement of safety in organizations with high risk for errors.

These management practices also underlie all of the worker deployment, work design, and safety culture practices that are addressed in the remaining chapters of this report. As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2 , latent work conditions have been documented as posing the greatest risk of errors. Therefore, it should not be surprising that errors often have their primary origins in decisions made by fallible system designers and high-level managerial decision makers Reason, The corollary to this statement is that these high-level managerial decision makers have a substantial role to play in error prevention—a role that deserves more attention and support.

The concept of evidence-based practice first emerged in clinical medicine and now suffuses the language, decision making, and standards of care of health care clinicians, managers, policy makers, and researchers throughout the world.

Evidence-based clinical practice is defined as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious integration of current best evidence—obtained from systematic research—in making decisions about the care of individual patients Sackett et al. The use of systematic research findings for evidence-based practice is also supported and applied in the fields of education, criminal justice, and social welfare through the efforts of the international Campbell Collaboration—a sibling of the Cochrane Collaboration that prepares and maintains evidence-based systemic reviews of the effects of health care interventions The Campbell Collaboration, undated.

Evidence-based management , however, is a newer concept—not yet as widely embraced, but just as important Axelsson, ; Hewison, ; Kovner et al. Evidence-based management means that managers, like their clinical practitioner counterparts, should search for, appraise, and apply empirical evidence from management research in their practice. Managers also must be prepared to have their own decisions and actions systematically recorded and evaluated in a way that will further add to the evidence base for effective management practices Axelsson, While health care practitioners have been encouraged and supported in the adoption of evidence-based practice, the same support and encouragement has not been widely available to health care managers for multiple reasons:.

Civil War Ward et al. In the case of American health care, the sophisticated medical technology the weaponry outclasses the tactics management used to organize work and implement change. Despite the limitations discussed above in the supply of and access to empirical information to guide managerial decision making, there is strong evidence that the management practices enumerated at the beginning of this chapter play a critical role in achieving organizational goals and successfully implementing change within an organization.

These five practices are discussed in turn below. The health care cost-containment pressures of the last two decades see Chapter 1 have forced HCOs to examine their work processes and undertake work redesign initiatives to deliver care more efficiently. Efficiency frequently calls for conducting production activities in as cost-effective and time-efficient a manner as possible. Organizations in many industries often try to accomplish efficiency by downsizing, outsourcing, and cutting costs.

Such efficiency measures can be at odds with safety Carnino, undated; Cooper, ; Spath, For example, when system failures associated with four large-scale disasters Three-Mile Island, Chernobyl, the Challenger space shuttle, and the Bhopal chemical plant were compared, subordination of safety to other performance goals was one of 11 common attributes found Petersen, HCOs are not immune to these pressures.

For example, one of the practices used by high-reliability organizations to increase safety is to consciously incorporate personnel and equipment redundancy into some aspects of work design. This redundancy creates some slack in the system such that if one component in the work production process fails, a replacement will be available to perform the function. Air traffic controllers, for example, are assigned to radar screening in groups of two. While their job functions are somewhat different, each controller acts as a check on the other Roberts, In high-reliability organizations, however, performance reliability safety rivals productivity as a dominant organizational goal, and such work components are viewed as essentials rather than frills Roberts, Organizations can achieve balance between production efficiency and reliability by balancing and aligning their organizational goals; accountability mechanisms; and reward, incentive, and compensation mechanisms Roberts and Bea, a.

Creating and sustaining trust is the second of the five management practices essential to patient safety. Trust has been defined as the willingness to be vulnerable to the intentions of another Mayer et al. When trust links people and groups to organizations, it generally makes workers willing to contribute their efforts without expecting an immediate payoff, and increases the extent to which leaders can rely on workers to have the organization's interests at heart and vice versa.

Workers' trust in organizational leaders has been found to be directly related to positive business outcomes, such as increased sales and profitability, and inversely related to employee turnover Mayer et al. Trust has the added advantage of increasing workers' capacity for change by reducing the uncertainty and discomfort with change that otherwise impair individual and group adaptability Coff and Rousseau, ; Rousseau, and increasing workers' willingness to take risks associated with change Mayer et al.

Honest and open communication, necessary for successful organizational change, depends on the development of trust throughout the organization Carnino, undated; DeLong and Fahey, , in part because the level of trust that exists between the organization and its employees greatly influences the amount of knowledge that flows among individuals and from individuals into organization databases, archives, and other records DeLong and Fahey, Further, when trust is lacking, participants are less likely to believe what leaders say and to contribute the extra effort, engagement, and knowledge needed to make change successful.

It is easier to share information, downplay differences, and cooperate when those involved in a change trust each other. Trust flows two ways—up and down the hierarchies of organizations. Top-down trust is based largely on competence Rousseau et al. Leaders are more willing to entrust subordinates with complete information and with the authority to make decisions when they believe those subordinates to be competent and capable of making and carrying out appropriate decisions.

It is well established that leaders manage subordinates differently depending on the employees' perceived competence Graen et al.

This is because when hiring, employers put themselves at risk, depending on those they hire to act in ways that help rather than hinder the organization. Employees are hired to act for their employers by making decisions and carrying out responsibilities on the employers' behalf Pearce, Employers cope with this vulnerability by attempting to hire employees they can trust and by managing those they hire in ways that sustain that trust.

Top-down trust is reinforced whenever leaders have positive exchanges with their employees. Such exchanges are more likely to occur in long-standing relationships in which both parties have made investments in each other, for example, when leaders have developed subordinates who in turn have worked to understand the leader's goals and preferred ways of managing and adjusted their behavior accordingly Huselid, ; Miles and Snow, Bottom-up trust, on the other hand, is based in part on workers' perceptions of a manager's or organization's ability, benevolence, and integrity Mayer et al.

An organization's ability comprises its collective skills, competencies, and expertise. Conversely, trust can be damaged by disclosure of failures in competence or by workers' direct observation of instances in which competence falls short of prior expectations. Bottom-up trust is also based on benevolence, that is, the extent to which managers and organizations are understood by workers to want to do good aside from a self-concerned or profit motive for the person who trusts the entity the trustor.

Benevolence gives rise to an attachment between the entity being trusted the trustee and the trustor. Benevolence also has been associated with a trustee's motivation to speak truthfully Mayer et al.

The relationship between integrity and trust involves the trustor's perception that the trustee adheres to a set of principles that the trustor finds acceptable Mayer et al. In health care organizations, where many workers have strong professional identifications, trust of leadership by subordinates often reflects the extent to which leadership is committed to the values inherent in the professions of medicine and nursing Bunderson, ; Thompson and Bunderson, in press.

Conversely, evidence indicates that change initiatives targeting quality improvement are far less likely to generate support when clinical caregivers believe those changes are motivated by either economic or political considerations Rousseau and Tijoriwala, Integrity is assessed by the consistency of a party's past actions, credible communication about the trustee from other parties, the belief that the party has a strong sense of justice, and the extent to which the party's actions are consistent with his or her word.

Trust between workers and the organizations in which they work therefore results from the workers' perceptions of the interplay among the organization's ability, benevolence, and integrity. Each of these factors exists to a varying degree along a continuum.

Although in the best case, high degrees of trust result from high levels of all three factors, meaningful trust can exist with lesser levels of a combination of the three. The degree of trust between parties also is dynamic and evolves over time as the parties interact.

The outcomes that result when a trustor takes a risk and places his or her trust in the trustee affect the degree of trust that exists for subsequent potential interactions Mayer et al. Mutual trust is enhanced by positive exchanges that have occurred in the past and are expected to continue in the future Zucker, Therefore, trust in organizations also depends to a certain extent on the extent of stability in the relationships that make up the organization e.

In organizations with high turnover, mutual trust is difficult to achieve Bryman et al. In firms in which promotions tend to be internal and the employee development system builds organization-specific capabilities, both workers and managers are more likely to possess common knowledge and similar points of view, and managers are more likely to trust workers Miles and Snow, Such bases for trust are less common in many contemporary firms, where external mobility and reduced opportunities for within-firm development mean that organization members, leaders, and workers have fewer shared experiences and frames of reference Leana and Rousseau, It is widely evident that over the course of the twentieth century, senior managers in many industries have come to place greater trust in workers Miles and Creed, Employees increasingly have experienced greater discretion and reduced standardization in the way they accomplish their work, coordinated more of their interactions with coworkers and other departments, and reduced their dependence on supervisors for problem solving.

At the same time that modern organizational practices presume a higher degree of trustworthiness among workers, however, workers' trust in management remains highly variable Freeman and Rogers, In a large-scale survey of the American workforce, Freeman and Rogers found that workers generally reported levels of loyalty to their employer greater than the degree of trust they placed in their employer to keep its promises to them or other workers.

This low level of trust is connected to a widespread sense on the part of American workers that they have little influence over workplace decisions. Where workers exercise greater influence over workplace decisions, they are more likely to trust their managers and act in ways that ease implementation of those decisions.

With respect to nursing, higher levels of nurse autonomy and control over nursing practice have been associated with greater trust in management among nurses and greater commitment to their employing HCO Laschinger et al.

Actively managing the process of change is essential to patient safety because all organizations have difficulty in navigating major organizational change Kimberly and Quinn, HCOs are no exception. Despite their vast experience with introducing new medical technologies, HCOs have a history of ineffective attempts at organizational change and remain prone to poor change implementation Mintzberg, A large body of research and other published work offers frameworks, models, and guidance for undertaking change Baer and Frese, ; Goodman, ; Parker, ; Rousseau and Tijoriwala, ; Walston et al.

This work consistently calls attention to five predominantly human resource management practices 1 as particularly important for successful change implementation: ongoing communication; training; use of mechanisms for measurement, feedback, and redesign; sustained attention; and worker involvement.

Frequent, ongoing communication through multiple media is a key ingredient of successful organizational change initiatives Ingersoll et al. Such communication is a powerful facilitator of change, whereas poor communication creates significant problems Rousseau and Tijoriwala, In the present context, it is essential to have ongoing communication with employees about the goals and mission of the HCO, the reasons for change including contributing economic and policy factors , and the nature of the change including changes in employee roles and responsibilities.

Soliciting feedback about the change throughout its planning, implementation, and continuance is also necessary Heifetz and Laurie, ; Ingersoll et al. Studies of HCO redesign, reengineering, and reorganization initiatives identify role conflict and ambiguity as consistent issues in change initiatives; nurses who view their roles as ambiguous have lower job commitment Ingersoll et al.

Clear communication about changes in employee roles and responsibilities can reduce such ambiguity. Even discussions about how the HCO is financed are recommended. In one study, nurses expressed concern about money being available for construction of new buildings even as staff was being admonished to conserve resources. This is a sentiment commonly expressed by those unfamiliar with the multiple sources and allocations of revenue that can exist within an institution Ingersoll et al.

When nurse managers in one plus bed hospital undergoing organizational change were asked to rank the behaviors of health care executives in terms of how supportive those behaviors were to the change management process, respondents ranked frequent communication about the goals and progress of organizational change as the most important behavior Knox and Irving, Communication between nurses and nurse managers also has been shown to increase nurses' commitment to the organization McNeese-Smith, , which is essential to weathering the stresses of organizational change.

Because change often requires employees to adopt new roles and responsibilities, training is essential to successful change. This need is not always appreciated, however.

A study of 14 U. Training is especially needed in such specialized topics as work redesign, knowledge management, error prevention and detection Spear and Bowen, , and change management itself Strebel, In a survey of nurse leaders in VHA Inc. HCOs and nurse executives and managers belonging to the American Organization of Nurse Executives AONE , expertise in change management was one of five learning needs reported by the nurse leaders Gelinas and Manthey, Few changes in complex organizations work perfectly when first introduced.

Virtually all changes require modification over time to achieve optimum results. It is not unusual for organizations, departments, or plants that have implemented innovations most recently to perform worse than those that implemented comparable innovations a year or two before Macduffie and Pil, New practices often initially undermine existing routines and competencies and require ongoing learning adjustment, redesign of the change, and supportive efforts to capture the intended benefits of the innovation.

Ongoing monitoring, feedback, and redesign are needed to create and sustain effective change Goodman, ; Walston and Kimberly, Effective organizational transformations require long periods of time and constant effort.

Macduffie and Pil point out that in the auto industry, plants in the first year following adoption of a new work system struggle with the right mix of incentives, managerial supports, and training needs, and experience coordination difficulties with other units. Those that sustain the change into the second year begin to see cost and quality improvements.

The above-cited study of 14 U. Although difficulties arose during the long implementations, the transition from implementation to a sustained, institutionalized process was even more problematic. While most study participants perceived reengineering to be an ongoing change process, and managers realized that continual effort was needed to move reengineering forward, many ended their efforts or decreased them after initial implementation.

Without continued attention, the change was not sustained. The hospitals that were able to sustain a change were those that embedded the new initiative within ongoing operations, such as a continuous quality improvement or total quality management process, or established specific, measurable goals and mechanisms to track their progress. Codifying a change to ensure consistency of application and direction through implementation manuals, guidelines for decision making, and provision of budgetary support has been identified as a critical ingredient in successful and sustained implementation Walston et al.

Credible commitment to stay with the change over time in the face of personnel changes or economic factors is especially important in organizations with a history of dysfunctional labor—management relations and ineffective change management Heller, Such commitment can take the form of public statements and written documents articulating the agreement.

Evidence from multiple studies indicates that change is typically turbulent and difficult for staff members Ingersoll et al. Changes often affect worker roles and responsibilities, work group relationships, and resource availability and use.

Consequently, a natural human response is to react negatively to the challenges created by change. This negativity can be overcome by actively involving workers in the planning and design of a change and providing them with information about the progress being made in achieving the goals of the redesign Walston and Kimberly, The importance of such worker involvement is discussed in greater detail below. Evidence indicates that a highly bureaucratic structure, so useful in organizations into the early twentieth century, is inappropriate to many organizations today Ciborra, ; Ilinitch et al.

Organizational structures that are strongly hierarchical in design with resultant hierarchical decision making are hampered in their ability to respond to situations with high variability Moorman and Miner, ; Quinn, and are associated with reduced safety Roberts and Bea, b. Since the s, a worldwide evolution has taken place in the organizing principals of manufacturing, as the mass production system which itself replaced the old craft system in the early twentieth century was transformed at the end of the s into the flexible production system Macduffie and Pil, This flexible production system was enabled and reinforced by two related forces: managers' expanded trust in their workers and an ever-greater reliance on workers as the basis for organizational success Miles and Creed, The relationship between greater reliance on workers and organizational success is being documented across a variety of industries and types of research.

Studies of high-reliability organizations show that effective decision making is flexible decision making, pushed to the lowest level commensurate with available knowledge Bigley and Roberts, ; Roberts et al. For example, any level of military personnel on an aircraft carrier can call a halt to a flight operation if he or she sees what looks like a dangerous situation Roberts, Health services research supports these findings.

Nurses working in organizations whose work culture emphasized decentralized decision making reported significantly higher commitment to the organization, empowerment, and job satisfaction and significantly lower intent to leave Gifford et al. Such high-involvement work systems have been described across a number of industries.

They are characterized by shifting more decisions down the organization's hierarchy to the level of individual workers or teams of workers, increasing worker responsibility for quality control monitoring safety and taking action to prevent risks to safety or quality , and broadening the knowledge workers possess about the activities of other work groups e. Such work systems promote greater contributions on the part of workers to the value of the organization by releasing underutilized worker competence Edmondson, ; Frese et al.

Preconditions for implementing such systems include a relationship of trust between senior leadership and workers Rousseau and Tijoriwala, and credible commitment on the part of leadership to persist with implementing high-involvement work systems over time. In nursing research, this involvement in decision making has been studied under a number of constructs, including shared governance, nursing empowerment, control over nursing practice, and clinical autonomy. These constructs have certain common elements.

The results of these efforts are uncertain because of the lack of a uniform definitional construct, wide variation in implementation models, infrequent evaluations, and poorly designed evaluation methodologies.

Nursing research on empowerment similarly has not generally included a uniform operational definition of this construct, but has described empowerment in terms of its goal i. Additional studies in this series found higher levels of organizational trust among nurses reporting greater workplace empowerment Laschinger et al. Evidence also indicates that organizational structures that foster nurses' empowerment combined with strong managers may be important factors in increasing the organizational commitment of nurses working in nursing facilities Beaulieu et al.

Studies of shared governance and empowerment highlight nurses' control over their practice as a key element. A distinction is made in these studies between control over nursing practice and clinical autonomy.

Clinical autonomy refers to nurses' ability to assess individual patient needs and practice nursing care appropriate to those needs, that is, their ability to make independent clinical decisions and define the scope of practice in relationship to patients in their care Kramer and Schmalenberg, ; McClure et al.

Autonomy is a characteristic commonly identified by staff nurses, nurse managers, and chief nurse executives CNEs as important to a magnet hospital Aiken, ; McClure et al. Control over nursing practice is defined as nurses' ability to shape not just the care of an individual, but also the organizational policies and practices to be followed within nursing units and the HCO overall that affect nursing care, as well as to control the resources need to provide that care Hinshaw, Control over nursing practice represents an organization-level as opposed to patient-level autonomy, in which staff nurses, nurse managers, and CNEs take part in hospital policy and decision making about professional practice and patient care Scott et al.

A review of studies conducted on magnet hospitals reveals that both autonomy and control over nursing practice are consistently identified as magnet characteristics Scott et al. Other research suggests that nurses' autonomy and control over their practice environment are positively associated with their trust in management Laschinger et al.

The final evidence-based management practice calls for all HCOs to become learning organizations. The ongoing acquisition and management of knowledge has been identified as one of the intrinsic characteristics of high-performing organizations in postindustrial societies Quinn, Economists and business strategists point to how an organization manages its knowledge assets as more important to its competitive advantage in today's economy than how it manages bureaucratic control of its capital resources Blackler, ; DeLong and Fahey, Continuous organizational learning also has been documented as playing a central role in the development and maintenance of safety in organizations Carnino, undated.

This point is particularly salient to a high-tech industry such as health care, which is characterized by rapidly accelerating scientific and technologic advances. Learning organizations do not passively wait for knowledge to present itself, but actively manage the learning process by taking advantage of all sources of knowledge, using systematic experimentation to generate new knowledge internally, and transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization Garvin, These processes are used to create better work tools, processes, systems, and structures in order to improve the organization's production processes DeLong and Fahey, Taking advantage of all sources of knowledge Learning organizations know that knowledge can come from many sources, including internal flashes of creativity or insight, knowledgeable experts within the organization, external experts, the best practices of other organizations, and other sources.

They learn from their own and others' experiences by reviewing past organizational successes and failures, assessing them systematically, and recording them in a format that employees can easily access Garvin, Learning from the experiences and best practices of others is a major factor in the success and sizable cost savings of a number of organizations' reengineering initiatives Stewart, , although knowledge gained from failures can often be the most helpful DeLong and Fahey, However, knowledge from these sources serves as a starting point only; organizations are expected to test and improve upon it through continual experimentation DeLong and Fahey, Using systematic experimentation to generate new knowledge internally Experimentation is widely recognized as a cornerstone of a learning organization.

Experimentation involves the systematic searching for and testing of new knowledge using the scientific method through an ongoing series of small experiments, designed to produce incremental gains in knowledge access Garvin, It can be undertaken on existing programs or on planned new demonstration projects. This application of the scientific method in a continuing series of controlled experiments has been identified as the hallmark of the Toyota Production System, which has been widely hailed as a benchmark work system see Box The Toyota Production System.

The Toyota Production System TPS has long been hailed as the reason for the Toyota Company's outstanding performance and has been used as a model by many other organizations around the world. In essence, the TPS creates more Other knowledge management organizations, while perhaps not using the scientific method as rigorously as the Toyota System, employ similar methods associated with continuous quality improvement or total quality management.

These methods help the organization and its employees become more disciplined in their thinking and more attentive to details of work processes and production Garvin, Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization Learning organizations spread knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization. They know that ideas have the greatest impact when they are shared broadly rather than tightly held by a few individuals, and that knowledge must be transferred through multiple, reinforcing channels to create synergy and enhance its absorption and application.

A variety of knowledge dissemination mechanisms can promote this transfer, including written, oral, and visual reports; site visits and tours; personnel rotations; and education and training programs.

Each of these mechanisms, however, can be a cumbersome way to transfer knowledge. Active experience in performing a new activity is much more effective Garvin, ; some research indicates that knowledge is exchanged in direct proportion to the level of face-to-face contact Davenport et al. For this reason, personnel rotations have been identified as one of the most powerful methods of transferring knowledge Garvin, It is important to note that such face-to-face knowledge transfers depend on a stable organizational workforce.

A relatively stable workforce permits members to hold common understandings of important organizational priorities and processes and adequate information regarding the people and places in the organization where specific knowledge resides Coff and Rousseau, Knowledge management and organizational learning also are found to be more successful when they are supported by information technology Davenport et al.

However, the type and extent of information technology needed vary according to the predominant knowledge management strategy in use. In a study of knowledge management practices at management consulting firms, HCOs, and computer manufacturers, researchers found that organizations that produced relatively standardized products to meet fairly standard needs relied heavily on codified knowledge stored in databases where it could easily be used by anyone in the company Stewart, This capability required a heavy investment in information technology.

Alternatively, organizations that provided more customized services to address unique problems tended to rely more on person-to-person sharing of knowledge and used information technology primarily to help people communicate Hansen et al. HCOs are likely to provide both standardized and customized services, and must adapt their knowledge management strategies to their settings and particular needs. In all cases, it can be important to avoid overreliance on information technology at the expense of shared personal knowledge through face-to-face contact Goodman and Darr, The creation of a learning organization first requires an organizational commitment to learning through the establishment of a culture conducive to knowledge creation, sharing, and use—a knowledge-friendly culture DeLong and Fahey, ; Garvin, Yet research on more than 50 companies pursuing knowledge management projects revealed that organizational culture was the major barrier to creating a learning organization DeLong and Fahey, This situation will not be remedied overnight; most successful organizational learning and knowledge initiatives are the product of carefully cultivated attitudes, commitments, and management processes that have been built up slowly and steadily over time.

The Toyota Production System, discussed earlier see Box , is the product of decades of work Spear and Bowen, On the other hand, some changes can be made immediately to foster an environment conducive to learning. These include assessing the existing knowledge culture within an organization; freeing up employee time for thinking, learning, and training; and aligning incentives to reinforce and facilitate uptake of knowledge management practices. Assessing the existing knowledge culture within the organization Companies whose cultures are most effective at creating new knowledge and integrating it into the organization have norms and practices that demand broad participation in knowledge gathering and distribution DeLong and Fahey, Some organizations, however, favor individual knowledge over group or organizational knowledge.

In these organizations, individual knowledge is associated with power, control, and security of one's position in the organization. When employees believe that sharing what they know poses personal risk and decreases power, the free exchange of knowledge is impeded Davenport et al.

Before undertaking a knowledge management initiative, therefore, management should assess the culture of its organization to determine existing attitudes toward ownership of knowledge and how those attitudes would be altered by the initiative. Depending on the results of that assessment, management might also need to adopt new behaviors to communicate a shift from valuing individual over collective knowledge.

It is necessary as well to make explicit what practices need to change to promote more collaborative use of knowledge DeLong and Fahey, In addition, organizations should examine their internal communication patterns.

Communication patterns that make executives accessible and approachable and encourage open and frank dialogue are an essential element of a learning organization. Questioning fundamental beliefs and existing ways of working is difficult for organizational leadership, but is usually a key step in creating new knowledge for the organization. Learning organizations must identify norms and practices that are barriers to discussing sensitive topics, find and evaluate evidence about the extent to which senior management is perceived as accessible and approachable, and identify the norms and practices within the organization that encourage high frequency of interaction and the expectation of collaborative problem solving.

Although the senior executive ultimately must make a decision not everyone will like, the process for engaging and listening to many views on an issue increases the likelihood of a better decision and broader acceptance of the decision once made DeLong and Fahey, Shared information is enhanced by familiarity, that is, where people know each other and the conditions under which they work.

Familiarity can be compromised by status or other differences that suppress interaction Goodman and Garber, ; Goodman and Leyden, As a result, people from different parts of the organization and different status levels often find it difficult to share knowledge. Such boundaries inhibit the flow of information; they keep individuals and groups isolated and reinforce preconceptions. A solution to this problem is to break down boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas between individuals at multiple levels of the organization through formal and informal practices that bring people together for this purpose DeLong and Fahey, Conferences, meetings, and project teams that cut across organizational levels promote a fresh flow of ideas and the chance to consider competing perspectives Garvin, Providing time for thinking, learning, and training For knowledge to be created and adopted, employees must have sufficient time for reflection and analysis to assess current work systems and devise new work processes.

Such learning is difficult when employees are harried or rushed; it tends to be displaced by the pressures of the moment. Only if top management explicitly frees up employee time for this purpose does learning occur with any regularity. Further, employees must posses the skills to use learning productively.

To perform and evaluate experiments, managers and staff members need skills in such areas as statistical methods and experiment design in order to perform and evaluate experiments. These skills are seldom intuitive and must be learned. Such training is often most effective when intact work groups participate in the training together. Training in brainstorming, problem solving, evaluation of experiments, and other core learning skills is essential Garvin, All of the organizations managed according to the Toyota Production System, for example, share an overarching belief that people are the most significant corporate asset and that investments in their knowledge and skills are necessary to build competitiveness.

They invest heavily in training and in creating among coworkers shared understandings of problem solving and innovation processes Spear and Bowen, Organizations need to create formal programs or events with explicit learning goals in mind. Each of these activities fosters learning by requiring employees to grapple with new knowledge and consider its implications for the organization Garvin, Knowledge is more likely to be transferred effectively when the right incentives are in place Garvin, In a study of 31 knowledge management projects at 24 corporations, the motivation to create, share, and use knowledge was found to be a critical success factor for the projects.

The researchers concluded that incentives to contribute should be long-term and should be linked to both the general evaluation and compensation structure of the organization Davenport et al.

Some organizations have used the extent to which employees contribute to the organization's knowledge repository as a component of employee evaluations and compensation decisions Davenport et al. The U. Army is one of a growing number of organizations that formally consider knowledge-sharing capabilities when identifying candidates for promotion DeLong and Fahey, While some nurses have had firsthand experience with the successful application of the above evidence-based management practices in their workplace, this has not consistently been the case.

Concerns about changes in nursing leadership, increased emphasis on production efficiency in response to cost-containment pressures, weakened trust, poor change management, limited involvement in decision making pertaining to work design and work flow, and limited knowledge management are all found in nurses' work environments. Each of these barriers to the application of evidence-based management practices in nurses' work environments is discussed in turn below.

Nursing leadership in hospitals and other HCOs has a key role with respect to the deployment of the nurse workforce in these institutions and overall patient care. This role, however, at least in hospitals, is changing. Evidence suggests that these changes may diminish the ability of hospital nursing leadership to 1 represent nursing staff and management to each other and facilitate their mutual trust, 2 facilitate the input of direct-care nursing staff into decision making on the design of work processes and work flow, and 3 provide clinical leadership in support of knowledge acquisition and uptake by nursing staff.

The senior nurse leadership position in hospitals has not always been an executive-level position. A national Commission of Nursing report and publications of the American Hospital Association recommended to hospitals that chief nursing officers CNOs be regarded as a key component of a hospital's executive management team. Recommendations that nurses be involved in policy development and decision making throughout the organization were important in bringing the CNO position to the executive management team in many hospitals Clifford, This view of the CNO position is consistent with both old and new management concepts.

Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, made major improvements in the education and training of nurses in the latter part of the nineteenth century. She proposed an administrative system for hospitals that included a triad of lay administrator, physician leader, and senior nursing leader.

Her model was an important contributor to the development of hospital management systems and was responsible for the introduction of the position of superintendent of nurses to U.

Nightingale asserted that only those trained as nurses were qualified to govern other nurses Clifford, This view also is consistent with the more recent management philosophy embodied in the Toyota Production System, which requires that all managers know how to perform the jobs of those they supervise Spear and Bowen, Until recently, the CNO was the official leader of a hospital's nursing staff. Although other administrative responsibilities may have been involved, the primary role of the CNO was the administration and leadership of the nursing service Clifford, In the past two decades, the role of the CNO has continued to expand as a result of service integration and hospital reengineering initiatives.

In surveys conducted in and of nurse leaders in VHA, Inc. Nearly all of these respondents identified expanded responsibilities as a major feature of their role change. The new, expanded roles of these hospital nurse leaders included responsibilities for radiology departments, surgery, emergency departments, cardiology, nursing homes, outpatient services, admitting, and infection control units Gelinas and Manthey, Even as CNOs have increasingly assumed these expanded managerial duties, they also have retained responsibility for managing nursing services.

Research is needed on whether the expanded role of the CNO has beneficial or adverse effects on patients Clifford, Some assert that expanding the CNO role increases senior nurse executives' influence in desirable ways. Others express concern that the expansion of the CNO's areas of responsibility beyond those directly associated with clinical nursing takes attention away from nursing care and hinders the development of strong nursing leadership for nursing practice in the hospital.

What is agreed upon is that as the roles of nurse leaders have expanded, so have the demands of balancing two, often competing, sets of responsibilities as senior administrative staff and leader of nursing staff.

As senior executive, the CNO must help the hospital meet its strategic goals, which are often financially focused. As leader of nursing staff, the CNO is responsible for providing clinical leadership. Concern has also been expressed that the attempt to meet both sets of responsibilities has resulted in the potential loss of a common voice for nursing staff and a weakening of clinical leadership. Moreover, fewer nurse managers, directors, and assistant nurse managers were found at all levels of the hospitals Clifford, This phenomenon has been documented to occur on a more widespread basis.

In the previously cited and surveys of nurse leaders in VHA, Inc. HCOs and AONE nurse executives and managers, nearly one-third of all respondents indicated that after their redesign initiatives, there would no longer be a separate department of nursing Gelinas and Manthey, Hospital staff nurses further affirm these findings.

A more recent, — survey of nurses working in acute care hospitals in Pennsylvania additionally found that The potential loss of the ability of these nursing leaders to represent staff nurses is articulated in a report on the findings of interviews with executives of 13 VHA, Inc.

HCOs conducted in The nurse authors of the report state:. It was not uncommon to find nursing personnel reporting to non-nurse administrators, and former nurse executives responsible for non-clinical, non-patient care departments…. Nurse executives are fulfilling a variety of roles previously considered strictly administrative, including those of chief operating officer and CEO.

In this capacity, it is inappropriate for them to be spokespersons for the nursing profession within their institution—they must be spokespersons for the broad function of patient care. Although this bodes well for improvements in patient care, it also dislocates the strongest voice for professional nursing issues. For the past 20 years or so, nurse executives have been spokespersons for the profession at the institutional, local, state, and national levels, both as individuals and through their organizations and associations.

Because of the dramatic role changes underway, the ability of this group to effectively represent the nursing profession may be seriously compromised.

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Transformational leadership and change in healthcare And transformaional leads to having higher well-being as well as increasing their commitment to their hospitals. The result of this study indicated that transformational leadership was applied well in Chinese medical settings with a score of Google Scholar Patient safety programme: In safe hands 24—7. Total explained variance of the final model was The span of control of the midlevel director click here nursing increased, and the incumbent had less time to spend with individual unit managers. Many transformationzl the changes in nursing leadership described above were the result of organizational transformational leadership and change in healthcare to achieve click at this page efficiency Sovie and Jawad, Because they value their job and find it gratifying.
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Job accenture The salary of physicians in Chinese public tertiary hospitals: a transformational leadership and change in healthcare cross-sectional and follow-up study. These methods help the organization and its employees become more disciplined in their thinking and more attentive to details of work processes and production Garvin, Any cookies that may not be cigna health com necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, link, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. December 29, Wellspring is a federation of 11 freestanding not-for-profit nursing homes in eastern Wisconsin.

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So how can healthcare leaders effectively lead through this ever-changing landscape? Transformational leadership in healthcare is needed to help drive innovation forward while managing organizational change from up, down and across.

To be successful, compassion and engagement are needed because with change comes uncertainty, and with uncertainty the company and team culture can be vulnerable.

Your culture ultimately determines the success of the implementation and adoption of new initiatives. When leaders engage their stakeholders and network, and actively listen to feedback, everyone becomes more engaged and motivated to help innovate and implement change, which increases productivity.

Exceptional change and visionary leaders are needed to help navigate the uncertain journey of transformational change. Click here to download our ebook to learn more! Compassion is our ability to adopt the perspective and feel the emotions of another person, and subsequently want to take action to help.

In healthcare, the patient is at the center of everything we do. Patient care that is compassionate may have a positive effect on patient outcomes, as suggested by several recent studies. Patients reported that receiving compassionate care from clinicians aided recovery, including an increased sense of responsibility and control over their health.

Proxy reports from psychotherapists described several patient-reported outcomes that improved with compassionate practice, including that patients felt heard and understood. As a result of such studies, we are able to gain evidence-based insights as to how compassion in healthcare may lead to better patient experiences and improved care. Leaders that can foster a compassionate and empowering culture within their organization can positively influence many factors.

These include: 3,4. The organizational behaviour has a profound influence on its culture and is driven by what leaders focus on, discuss, and value. Leaders need to consider connectivity, active listening, coaching and shared accountability in order to empower and motivate staff to help improve results and accelerate change. To support organizational behaviour change, it is necessary to create a culture where failure is accepted and staff are not penalized.

Take inspiration from real-life entrepreneurs who have implemented successful leadership tactics to improve their organization. Download your ebook now. Creating a culture where failure is accepted, and where employees are not reprimanded for failures, will ultimately lead to innovation.

The healthcare industry is probably the most unique and rapidly changing which poses significant challenges to healthcare leaders. Medical discoveries are changing how we treat patients; aging populations are reshaping how we look at diseases and models of care.

In such a landscape, it is pertinent for healthcare companies to innovate more rapidly to respond to market needs. When you are able to take a deeper look into the way you do things alongside your staff, you can see the opportunities to simplify and improve.

One thing is certain, it is leaders that bare the most responsibility in motivating and inspiring others to achieve common goals. It is imperative that we work together, listen, and continue to innovate as we move through this healthcare transformation together. She is dedicated to delivering high quality content on the topic of the future of healthcare to our readers. Subscribe to our newsletter now. Quick Takes Exceptional change and visionary leaders are needed to help navigate the uncertain journey of transformational change healthcare systems are facing The key ingredient to successful transformational leadership in healthcare is compassion — evidenced by successful entrepeneurs across multiple industries Healthcare leaders that can foster a compassionate and empowering culture within their organization can positively influence innovation within their organization and improved patient safety, experience and clinical efficiency.

Increasing industry pressures calls for transformational leadership in healthcare As the global population steadily increases and health advancements lead to improved life expectancy, 1 healthcare systems across the world are facing increasing pressure to keep up with the demand.

One thing is certain: companies need to adapt and change. Our work on collective leadership shows the importance of developing cultures to support effective teamworking. Our stories show the importance of proactively identifying invisible forces with an open and enquiring mind. For example, recognising the value of physical spaces and personal contact, the impact of job titles, the diversity of attitudes and preferences, or the presence of less visible needs in the community.

These forces can be both invisible and impassable, terminating transformational change efforts or steering them towards difficulty unless surfaced early and dealt with skilfully.

We also heard about the power of staff and communities to drive transformation: the importance of giving people time and space to think through the purpose of transformation; to understand the struggles and worries they face; to offer support instead of demanding change with no time to prepare or engage. More fundamentally, our stories show the need to reconsider the structures that impact on their ability to do this — regulation, funding, training, organisational cultures — and to create ways to make it easier for staff to lead transformational change efforts.

Read the report. Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust: Northumbria Specialist Emergency Care Hospital is a purpose-built facility that opened in to transform emergency care across a large geographical area. Buurtzorg Nederland: a novel care model that has received international acclaim for transforming community care through its nurse-led, cost-effective approach.

Making transformational change work. A new approach to transformational change. Therefore, two things are key: a strengthened focus on how we learn together as a health and care system, understanding and connecting efforts, and building from this rather than starting afresh.

This requires time and support to build skills, relationships and confidence a form of leadership that is collaborative and distributed, bringing together people from disparate groups to harness their collective potential. Challenges to face. Opportunities and untapped potential. The need for transformational leadership. A collective focus. Related content. Blog Transformational change in health and care: five small steps to make a big difference Durka Dougall considers how five small steps can make a big difference in strengthening transformational change.

Article Talking leadership: clinicians leading transformational change Taj Hassan answers questions about how clinicians are contributing to transformational change in the NHS.

Blog Is transformation in the NHS really transformational? Mandip Randhawa considers whether the NHS has the tools for effective change. Add your comment Your name. Email your email will not be made public. Post comment. Leave this field blank. You may also be interested in. Blog How can managers and leaders support staff wellbeing in the NHS? At a time of crisis for the health and care system, how can managers and leaders in the NHS be supported to line manage and lead well?

Simon Newitt outlines the thinking behind The King's Fund's new free online course that aims to do just that. Blog Tired of being exhausted: seven key actions for leaders in the NHS workforce crisis What can be done to help address the health and care workforce crisis?

Suzie Bailey and Michael West outline seven key actions leaders can take. Blog Continuity and change? But while the direction of reform will not change, there are real opportunities and a need for a new leadership style, as Sally Warren writes.

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Transformational leadership has the possibility to change all of that for the health care industry. Transformational leadership would allow physicians, who are the usual leaders in a . Feb 1,  · The research project ‘An Evaluation of Transformational Change in NHS North East’ examines the progress and success of National Health Service (NHS) organisations in . May 18,  · Congressional tinkering over the 75 years since President Roosevelt attempted to enact national health insurance has yielded little by way of major change in health care .